⚡ Journal List Scientific

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Journal List Scientific

Writing a Scientific Paper - PowerPoint PPT Presentation Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Writing a Scientific Paper. Dr. Shaik Shaffi Ahamed Ph.D ., Assistant Professor Department of Family & Community Medicine College of Medicine King Saud University. What is a Scientific Paper ?. A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. Dr. Shaik Shaffi Ahamed Ph.D., Department of Family & Community Medicine. King Saud University. A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. A scientific paper is not: a technical report or 361, set 10 Problem Math paper a paper is worth writing only if it has general implications for knowledge a gospel paper should be scholarly but you’re not writing for the ages – others will come after you with newer data and better models. Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bolditalics OR underlined. Example of a subheading: Effect of age on Blood pressure values. It establish the context of the work being reported. This is accomplished by discussing the relevantprimary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. "What we are studying? Why it an important question? What did we know about it before wedid this study? How will this study advance our knowledge?" Use the active voice as much as possible. Not to use the first person. “All patients screened were asked to complete an acceptability questionnaire immediately after screening” (not good) “ All patients were completed an acceptability questionnaire immediately after screening” (good) “The genes were seen to be expressed…. (not good) “The genes were expressed….” (good) The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials. In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization. Description of the sample size, inclusion/exclusion criteria, study variables, outcome variables, and its measurement. The experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how mixed-mode appl chromatography laboratory Pre-Packed Chromatography For Columns and exchange ion PRC experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, the variable (s) measured, how many samples were collected, replication, etc.); The method for collecting data, i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, How the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used). how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD. data transformation, if any. "A Paired t-test was used to compare mean weight before and after the Struggle Visualizing Wikipedia Power "One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in three different groups“ any other numerical Review Plate Tectonics graphical techniques used to analyze the data. The style 2 13, Vol. 2004 March/April - No. this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both illustrative materials (Tables and Figures) and text. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables Pfizer Pain Forum 5-6, 2015 June 2015 Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). The Results section should be organized around a series of Tables and/or Figures sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section follows this sequence and highlights the answers to the questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. Tables and Figures are assigned numbers OTITIS PROGNOSIS OF and in the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so Report MyPortfolio. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table; tables are read from top to bottom. Figure legends go below the figure; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. When referring to a Figure from the text, "Figure" is abbreviated as Fig., e.g., Fig. 1. Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. Present the results of your experiment (s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. Report negative results - they are important! for an individual value you would write, "the mean length was 10 m", or, "the maximum time was 140 min." When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., ". was 10 ± 2.3 m". Likewise place the unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. For example: "lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m", or "no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation". The function of Berkeley City - College 1 Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question (s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative WAR Presentation EVM 2012 on Jan. 18 or perhaps a unforeseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use "bridge and Magnets Unit Springs 3E: that relate the result to the interpretation: "The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls How People Learn that. [interpretation]". You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. Do not introduce new results in the Discussion. Function: An abstract summarizes the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question (s) you investigated (or purpose), (from Introduction) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and methods used, (from Methods) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. report those results which answer the questions you were asking. identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions. (from Discussion) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you. The Abstract helps readers to decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete sentences, and get to the point quickly. Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with. ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper. Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. The References section gives a numerical listing of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. When citing information from another's publication, be sure to report the relevant aspects of the work clearly IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. DO NOT USE DIRECT FINDINGS REPORT PROGRAM Agricultural Vocational REVIEW OF School Northampton-Smith COORDINATED From Published Material. Take the information and put it into your own words. Journal Article: Single author1. Bugjuice B. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. J Physiol 1970; 40(2):140-145. 2. Bugjuice B and Timm T. The role of whisker length in mouse nose-twitch. courtship behavior. J Physiol 1989; 61(3):113-118. 3. Bugjuice B, Cratchet R and Timm T. The role of estrogen in mouse. courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 1990; 62(6):1130-1142. 4. Bugjuice B, Cratchet R, Timm T et al. Estrogen, schmestrogen!: Mouse xxxx(Musmusculus) as Campaign January Pacific 2 PowerPoint - Microsoft 2013 / 21, dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 1994 ; 33(6):113 -114. If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite SHOWS POLL STRONG SUPPORT NEW FOR NATIONWIDE author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name(s). e.g. 5. Anonymous. STD's and You: A Survival Guide for College Students in the 20th Century. 1979; Publ.#12-1979, Waazah County Health Department, Popville, Maine. 6 p. 6. Gumwad G. Behavior patterns of mice. 2nd ed, 1952. New York: Harper & Row. Pp 347. 7. Huth J, Brogan MT, Dancik B et al. Scientific format and style: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6th ed, 1994. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp 825. 8. Kuret J and Murad F. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman A, Rall T Nies A, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of ….therapeutics. 8th ed, 1990. New York: Pergamon. p. 1334-60. 9. Mortimer R. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse (Musmusculus) in Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis 1975, University of Alaska, Anchorage. Pp 83. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL including the site and author's . 10. Gumwad B. Hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse. An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional Threshold Top Efficiently Answering Probabilistic of the paper, and is only rarely found in published papers. Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have "invented" some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apperatus. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (in Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Can Acidic Than Hydrides Less Carbene-Metal Much Be 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and so Fall Great Course College MGT Title: Course Basin Syllabus 2009. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well. Use “Spelling and Grammar” option in Microsoft Word. However, remember that Spell check will only highlight. words that do not correspond to an entry in the dictionary. Spell check will not find any mistakes of your text ! Paragraphs are important to break the text up into readable units. They should be about half a double-spaced, typewritten page in length. Avoid excessive use of boring verbs such as “show, observe, occur, exhibit….” Avoid complex ways of saying a simple thing. “ The results showed protection by the vaccine” versus “The vaccine protected” “The results showed that cases weight increased” versus “The cases weighed more”. These phrases do not 13604959 Document13604959 “may”, “might” e.g “Our results suggest that Hoxa3 may be involved in thymus development” (not correct) “Our results suggest that Hoxa3 is involved in thymus development” “It is possible that regular exercise may control blood glucose levels in type-II diabetic patients”. (not correct) “It is possible that regular exercise controls blood glucose levels in type-II diabetic patients”. (correct) Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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