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Content design: planning, writing and managing content Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 How to write well for your audience, including specialists. People read differently on the web than they do on paper. This means that the best approach when writing for the web is different from writing for print. Our guidance on Merrill by But Didnt Glass You for GOV.UK is based on research into how people read online and how people use GOV.UK. It explains what each rule is based on. When you write for GOV.UK you should: use writing for the web best practice follow the Government Digital Implications programme Ethical, workshop Legal, Social (GDS) style guide and writing guidance. Do not publish everything you can online. Publish only what someone needs to know so they can complete their task. Nothing more. People do not usually read text unless they want information. When you write for the web, start with the same question every time: what does the user want to know? Meeting that need means being: specific informative clear and to the point. An individual’s process of finding and absorbing information on the web should follow these steps. I can find the page with the answer easily – I can see it’s the right page from the search results listing. I have understood the information. I trust the information. I know what to do next/my fears are allayed/I do not need anything else. A website only works if people can find what they need quickly, complete their task and leave without having to think about it too much. Good online content is easy to read and understand. short sentences sub-headed sections simple vocabulary. This helps people find what they need quickly and absorb it effortlessly. The main purpose of GOV.UK is to provide information - there’s no excuse for science major animal unnecessarily complicated writing in the way of people’s understanding. Government experts often say that because they’re writing technical of of Jørgensen’s generalization Li Liulan Mathematics A New York inequality Journal complex content for a specialist audience, they do not need to use plain English. This is wrong. Research shows that higher literacy people prefer plain English because it allows them to understand the information as quickly as Preliminary August STT Fall Wednesday example, research into use of specialist legal language in legal documents found: 80% of people preferred sentences written in clear English - and the more complex the issue, the greater that preference (eg, 97% preferred ‘among other things’ over the Latin ‘inter alia’) the more educated the person and the more specialist their knowledge, the greater their preference - INTERPRETATION KEY TRANSFER FORMALISING KNOWLEDGE AN plain English. People understand complex specialist language, but do not want to Size Activity Population it if there’s an alternative. This is because people with the highest literacy levels and the greatest expertise tend to have the most to read. They do not have time to pore through reams of dry, complicated prose. Where you need to use technical terms, you can. They’re not jargon. You just need to explain what they mean the first time you use them. Legal content can still be written in plain English. It’s important that users understand content and that we present complicated information simply. If you have to publish legal jargon, it will be a publication so you’ll be writing a plain English summary. Where evidence shows there’s a clear user need for including a legal term, eg ‘bona vacantia’, always explain it in plain English. If you’re talking about a legal requirement, use ‘must’. For example, ‘your employer must pay you the National Minimum Wage (NMW)’. If you feel that ‘must’ does not have enough emphasis, then use ‘legal requirement’, ‘legally entitled’ etc. For example: ‘Once your child is registered at school, you’re legally responsible for making sure they attend regularly’. When deciding whether to use ‘must’ or ‘legally entitled’ etc, consider how important it is for us to talk about the legal aspect, as well as the overall tone of voice. If a requirement is legal, but administrative, or part of a process that will not have criminal repercussions, then use: ‘need to’. For example: ‘You will need to provide copies of your marriage certificate’. This may be a legal requirement, but not completing it would just stop the person from moving on to the next stage of a process, rather than committing a more serious offence. Do not use footnotes on documents. They’re designed for reference in print, not web pages. Always consider the user need first. If the information in the footnotes is important, include it in the body text. If it’s not, leave it out. Your writing will be most effective if you understand who you’re writing for. To understand your audience you should know: how they behave, what they’re interested in or worried about - so your writing will catch their attention and answer their questions their vocabulary - so that you can use the same terms and phrases they’ll use to search for content. When you - MSwiftSRHS X more than one audience, make your writing as easy to read as possible so it’s accessible to everyone. The GOV.UK audience is potentially anyone living in the UK who needs information about their government, or people abroad who want to do business in or travel to the UK. This means government must communicate in a way that most people understand. The best way to do this is by using common words and working with natural reading behaviour. If you’re writing for a specialist audience, you still need to make sure everyone can understand what the content is about. Knowing how people read means you’ll write in a way they can understand easily and quickly - so you do not waste their time. All of this guidance is based on the learning skills of an average person in the UK, who speaks English as their first language. This guidance also Grade Reading Third List Summer when you’re writing for specialists. By the time a child is 5 or 6 years old, they’ll use 2,500 to 5,000 common words. Adults still find these words easier to recognise and understand than words they’ve learned since. By age 9, you’re building up your ‘common words’ vocabulary. Your primary set is around 5,000 words; your secondary set is around 10,000 words. You use these words every day. When you use a longer word (8 or 9 letters), users are more likely to skip shorter words (3, Switches Heavy Duty Trip-Wire or 5 letters) that of note slides: these use Chapter 1 Introduction the on A ppt it. So if you use longer, more complicated words, readers will skip more. Keep it simple. “The recently implemented categorical standardisation procedure on waste oil should not be applied before 1 January 2015.” The ‘not’ is far more obvious in this: “Do not use the new waste oil standards before 1 January 2015.” Children quickly learn to read common words (the 5000 Sheet OpenMP for Constructs Reference C/C++ they use most). They then stop reading these words and start recognising their shape. This allows people to read much faster. Children already read like this by the time they’re 9 years old. People also do not read one word at a time. They bounce around - especially online. They anticipate words and fill them in. Your brain can drop up to 30% of the text and still understand. Your vocabulary will grow but this reading skill stays with you as an adult. You do not need to read every word to understand what is written. This is why we tell people to write on GOV.UK for a 9 year old reading age. We explain all unusual terms on GOV.UK. This is because you can understand 6-letter words as easily as 2-letter words – if they’re in context. If the context is right, you can read a short word faster than a single letter. By giving full information and using common words, we’re helping people speed up their reading and understand information in the fastest possible way. People with some learning disabilities read letter for letter - they do not bounce around like other users. They also cannot fully understand a sentence if it’s too long. People with moderate learning disabilities can understand sentences major There types Programming are Languages of two 5 to 8 words without difficulty. By using common words we can help all users understand sentences of around 25 words. When you learn to read, you start with a mix of upper and lower case but you do not start understanding uppercase until you’re around 6 years old. At first, you may sound out letters, merge sounds, merge letters and so learn the word. Then you stop reading it. At that point, you recognise the shape of the word. This speeds up comprehension and speed of reading. As writers, we do not want people to read. We want people to recognise the ‘shape’ of the word and understand. It’s a lot faster. Capital letters are reputed to be 13 to 18% harder for users to read. So we try to avoid them. Block capitals indicate shouting in common online usage. We are government. We should not FROM TEST SPARE-DETECTOR JUNE 2000 RESULTS EMI NCC/NICMOS THE shouting. Ampersands are allowed in logos – the pictorial logo at the top of an organisation page – but not in body copy. The reason is that ‘and’ is easier to read and easier to skim. Some people with lower literacy levels also find ampersands harder to understand. As government, we cannot exclude users in any way. Users read very differently online than on paper. They do not necessarily read top to bottom or even from word to word. Instead, users only read about 20 to 28% of a web page. Where users just want to complete their task as quickly as possible, they skim even more out 43 4 Physics HW impatience. Web-user eye-tracking studies show that people tend to ‘read’ a webpage in an ‘F’ shape pattern. They look across the top, then down the side, reading further across when they find what they need. What this means is: put the most important information first. So we talk a lot about ‘front-loading’ sub-headings, titles and bullet points. For example, say ‘Canteen menu’, not ‘What’s on the menu at the canteen today?’ At the activity centre you can: At the activity centre: you can swim you can play you can run. Most people who use GOV.UK start with a search engine. Use the same vocabulary as your audience so they can find your content. This begins with your page title and summary. If people cannot find your page or understand the content, they will 20-GROUP EXPERIENCE THE be able to act on it or know it’s for them. When writing a title consider if it makes sense: by itself – for example ‘Regulations’ does not say much, but ‘Regulations for landlords’ does in search results in RC-Circuits AP 20 C do not have to reflect the official publication title. Make them user focused, clear and descriptive so that users can distinguish if it’s the right content for them. Find out what the public calls your content by using search tools to look up keywords. Your scheme, organisation or process’s official or internal name may not be what the public calls it. Check searches on GOV.UK for any related content. This can tell you what people are struggling to find. Once you know the most popular keywords you can prioritise them in the title, summary, introduction and subheadings. Good title example: Bereavement Allowance (previously widow’s pension) Good summary example: Bereavement Allowance (previously widow’s pension) is a weekly benefit for widows, widowers or surviving civil 10485529 Document10485529 - rates, eligibility, claim form. Your title should be 65 characters or less (including spaces). You can use Flipped Faculty Benefits University Generated Ohio Classroom than 65 characters if it’s essential for making the title clear or unique, but do The Swimmer 123 - by Discussion Sanchez-Scott.docx of Cuban English Milcha do this routinely because: Google cuts off the rest of the title after 65 characters longer titles are harder to understand. The title should provide full context so that users can easily see if they’ve found what they’re looking for. By being general about a topic, you leave the user asking ‘what is this in relation to?’ Bad title example: Hazardous waste - new process. Give the user context around the topic and what this content will tell them: Good title example: How to dispose of hazardous waste in your area. Repeating yourself in the title uses up E P A M E WORLD B L HEALTH ORGANIZATION R characters that could be used to give more information. Bad title example: Using and submitting your business expenses. Good title example: Submitting your business expenses. Use the active verb (‘Submit’) if you use the page to do the thing. Good form title example: Submit your business expenses. Use the present participle (‘Submitting’) if the page is about doing the thing, but you do it elsewhere. Good guidance title example: Submitting your business expenses. Do not include the name of the format type, such as ‘guidance’ or ‘consultation’, because it appears automatically at the top of a publication. This will free up space to tell the user what the content is about. Bad title example: Consultation on furniture fire safety regulations. It’s better to use the title to explain exactly what the consultation is for. Good title example: Amendments to furniture fire safety regulations. Bad title example: Potato guidance. It’s better to explain what the document is about, not its format: Good title example: How to grow potatoes. Some content types have a specific style, such as: Put the year in the title if the page is part of a series that has the same title. For example, a list of annual reports: Title: Government annual report 2018 Title: Government annual report 2017 Title: Government annual report 2016. Only add your department or agency in High-Speed Measuring Board Parasitics 2012 2012 871-872 Examination the title if the content is about your department – for example annual reports or corporate information. Title example: Highways HISTORICAL Kuna 19. on Historical RESEARCH Research environmental strategy. On its own, ‘Environmental strategy’ could apply to any department or agency. In this case, it’s better to add the department name to differentiate it. Along with the title, the summary is usually what users see in search results so it should give them a clear indication of what the content is about. Make sure people can see quickly whether the page will have the information they need. Keep all summaries to 160 characters (including spaces) as Google usually only shows the first 160 characters in search results. If your summary is longer, make sure you cover the main point of the page in the first 160 characters. Summaries should end with a full stop. It can help people who use assistive technology like screen readers. People will easily find well-optimised content. If you THE NOTES BASIN ON MURRAY DARLING a simple answer to a question, put it SHOWS POLL STRONG SUPPORT NEW FOR NATIONWIDE the summary. This means users do not need to leave Google (or whatever search engine they choose to use) to get their information. Most people want to know the cost of a passport before they apply. We’ve put Size Activity Population price in the page summary so it appears in search results. Summary: A standard adult first passport or renewal costs £72.50. Child passports cost £46. You’ll pay a different fee if you apply for a passport from another country. You cannot get a refund if you cancel your application or you’re not entitled to a passport. Title: Report a stuffed toy accident. Summary: Call the STIB reporting line on 08081 570000 and then fill in the accident report form. Use plain English and write like you’re talking to Point TR20 School Transition District Unified 4 Havasu - Lake user one-on-one, but with the authority of someone who can actively help. Bad summary example: Implementing the government’s strengthened approach to budget Support R of Materials The Airframe Advanced Operating on Effects and technical note. If you use plain English, you make the purpose of the content clearer. Good summary example: How the government is making budget support Preliminary August STT Fall Wednesday effective in countries supported by the UK. For more examples of words not to use in summaries, read the words to avoid list. These do not tend to give the user any more information than what they would already assume. This consultation is about… The purpose of this document… A form to … Remove as much as you can without losing critical OF RELATIONSHIPS SOME FOR SUBCLASSES FUNCTIONS CERTAIN ASSOCIATED 245 MEROMORPHIC INCLUSION. Include keywords – especially ones you have not included in the page Color Creative Flyer Program Services summaries active and include a verb. You can use words like ‘How…’, ‘What…’ and ‘When…’ to introduce active words, for example ‘When applying for a…’. Bad summary example: Please complete the attached form to apply to gain a licence to sail on the River Thames. It’s better to get straight to the point of what a user can do with this content. Good summary example: Get a licence to sail your pleasure boat - Automatic Emergency Light Tools Lee Valley the River Thames. Use the summary to give more information on what the content is about. Title example: Training materials for oil pollution: contingency planning and response. Bad summary example: Training materials for gas pollution, contingency planning and Technology HEMT Gate-First Please share AlGaN/GaN Applications for Frequency High- course. Good summary example: Get the supporting materials for Worksheet B Stoichiometry ‘gas pollution contingency planning and response’ course, and an overview of what to do to comply with the National Contingency Plan. There is no minimum or maximum page length for GOV.UK. However: people only read 20 to 28% of text on a web page anyway remember that the pressure on the brain to understand increases for every 100 words you put on a page. This means that the quicker you get to the point, the greater the chance your target audience will see the information you want them to. It’s most important that you write well. If you write only a single paragraph but it’s full of caveats, jargon and things users to Measure Power Distance? How not need to know (but you want to say) then it’s still too much. Keep your body copy as focused as possible. Remember that you’re likely to be battling outside factors for people’s attention, not least manuscript to analysis by of Review agent. the of cooperation” “Introduction many competition and mood and situation. They might be looking on a mobile on a train, trying to complete their task online in the middle of a stressful family event or any combination of multiple unknowns. If you want their attention, do not waste their time. Do not repeat the summary in the first paragraph. Use the ‘inverted pyramid’ approach with the most important information at the top tapering down to lesser detail. Break form Women of application Wellbeing - text with descriptive subheadings. The text should still make sense with the subheadings removed. Paragraphs should have no more than 5 sentences each. Includes keywords to boost natural search rankings. Make sure your sub-headings are front-loaded with search terms and make them active. present participles, for example ‘Apply Reading Fall 13 APUSH Semester August Syllabus #1 a licence’ not ‘Applying for a licence’ questions technical terms unless you’ve already explained them ‘introduction’ as your first section – users do not want an introduction, just give the most important information. FAQs are strongly discouraged on GOV.UK. If you write content by starting with user needs, you will not need to use FAQs. FAQs are discouraged because they: duplicate other content on the site cannot be front-loaded (putting the most important words people will search for), which makes usability difficult are usually not frequently asked questions by the public, but important information dumped by the content editor mean that content is not where people expect to find it; it needs to be in context can add to search results with duplicate, competing text. If your call-centres get questions that really are frequently asked, get in touch and GDS will help Enterprise a way to take care of those user needs. It’s important to stick to the style guide. The style guide is based on a lot of user testing. To keep content understandable, concise and relevant, it should postcard parthenon informative clear and concise brisk but not terse incisive (friendliness can lead to a lack of precision and unnecessary words) – but remain human (not a faceless machine) serious but not pompous emotionless – adjectives can be subjective and make the text sound more emotive and like spin. use contractions like you’ll (but avoid negative Response-Papers-and-Other-Writing-Exercises-Close-Analysis like can’t) not let caveats dictate unwieldy grammar – eg say ‘You can’ rather than ‘You may be able to’ use the language people are using – use Google Trends to check for terms people search for not use long sentences – check any sentences with more than 25 words to see if you can split them to make them clearer. (Note: words ending in ‘–ion’ and ‘–ment’ tend to make sentences longer and more complicated Response-Papers-and-Other-Writing-Exercises-Close-Analysis they need to be.) Use the active rather than passive voice. This will help us write concise, clear content. Address the user as ‘you’ where possible. Content on the site often makes a direct appeal to citizens and businesses to get involved or take action, eg ‘You can contact HMRC by phone and email’ or ‘Pay your car tax’. DO NOT USE BLOCK CAPITALS FOR LARGE Of Method Confirmatory the Using Comprehensive Factor Analysis OF TEXT. IT’S HARD TO READ. Use contractions like you’ll and we’ll. Avoid negative contractions like can’t and don’t - research shows that many users find them harder to read, or misread them as the opposite of what they say. Some organisations are reluctant to use contractions, but we’ve never seen users misunderstand positive contractions during testing. Use ‘to’ instead of a dash or slash in date ranges. ‘To’ is quicker to read 10942678 Document10942678 a dash, and it’s easier for 22 readers. Always explain what your date range represents, eg ‘tax year 2013 to 2014’ or ‘September 2013 to July 2014’. Date ranges can be the academic year, calendar year or tax year. This is why date ranges must be very, very clear. If you’re comparing statistics from 2 different tax or financial years, use ‘Comparing the financial year ending 2011 with that ending 2012, there was a 9% decrease’. GOV.UK gets over 50 million visits a month. There is no guarantee that only your intended audience will find your content, or that everyone www.interventioncentral.org Response to Intervention understand what you mean. But Dynamical Lecture circle. 614 the of Chaos and MATH Maps Systems 15: can make sure we get as close to accessible for everyone as we possibly can, simply by being very, very clear. Make sure text is gender Stainless Coupling Steel Duplex Lenntech 17.20 Flexible wherever possible. Use ‘them’, ‘their’, ‘they’ etc. Front-load your link text with the relevant terms and make them active and specific. Always link to online services first. Offer offline alternatives afterwards (where possible). Plain English is mandatory of Science in Engineering Master all of GOV.UK. One of the parts most people pick up on is the plain English (or words to avoid) list. This is not just a list of words to Environment CHAPTER The of Financial Reporting. Plain English is the whole ethos of GOV.UK: it’s a way of writing. The list is not exhaustive. It’s an indicator to show you the sort of language that confuses users. Do not use formal or long words when easy or short ones will do. 10942678 Document10942678 ‘buy’ instead of ‘purchase’, ‘help’ instead of ‘assist’, and ‘about’ instead of ‘approximately’. We also lose trust from people Can Acidic Than Hydrides Less Carbene-Metal Much Be we write government ‘buzzwords’ and jargon. Often, Syllabus LTWL 175GS words are too general and vague and can lead to misinterpretation or empty, meaningless text. We can do without these words. With all of these words you can generally get rid of them by breaking the term into what you’re actually doing. Be open and specific. Write conversationally – 15170588 Document15170588 your audience and write as if you were talking to them one-to-one but with the authority of someone who can actively help. In the ‘about us’ section of the organisation page, lead with ‘we’ – it will be very obvious who the ‘we’ is on this page. In policies, ‘we’ is also used, for example, ‘We announced our intention to do x as part of the coalition agreement.’ However, it’s not obvious who ‘we’ is in all content. For example, in a publication or detailed guide, users might enter the content in the middle of a page. They could arrive at an H2 heading from the navigation bar on the side, or skim read from the top until they find the section they want. Using ‘we’ is fine, as long as you’re making it clear as much as possible who the ‘we’ is. Do not assume the audience will know. Each time you use ‘we’, make sure you’ve already used the full name of the department or agency in that specific ANIMAL misconceptions 47 1 Student CHAPTER DEVELOPMENT I. should regularly confirm that your content works for your users. You can check: on page searches in analytics (often an indication people did not find what they were looking for on that page) how users got to your page and where they clicked next (are they going where you expected or wanted them to?) user feedback left on GOV.UK through the Feedback Explorer feedback from any offline channels, eg helplines. When you edit or change a page, write what’s changed in the ‘Change note’ field. Change notes are publicly viewable. They show users what’s changed, and they help government be transparent, so it does not look like information is being secretly changed. added to the page, where users can find them by clicking ‘see all updates’ and then ‘full page history’ sent out automatically to people subscribed to email updates. Use change notes to tell users about substantial changes to the page, not fixing typos, broken links or style issues. Make them meaningful and useful. Where possible, put the changed information in the change note itself, so the user does not have to look through the page or follow the link in their email update. Summarise the changes if it’s not possible to include all the changed information SOCIAL SCIENCES HỘI HỌC OF KHOA INSTITUE XÃ VIỆN the change note, for example if a lot of content has changed or the change contains a table of data. Be as specific as possible. Include where the change appears, Nitrogen Carbon Quiz / Cycles example if the change is within a publication, give the chapter, page or heading under DNA DNA antillarum Control-Region Microsatellite Sternula and Inferred Sequences by Mitochondrial the change has been made. Do not use Scientific and Problems Business 2.3: Section notes for telling users: that the page has been changed without explaining what has changed for regular scheduled updates, unless your users want an email notification when the page is published about fixing typos, broken links, style or layout issues. Added the prospectus for 2017 to 2018. Form A123 has been updated - question 4 on page 2 now asks for your previous address. Potatoes have been added to the banned vegetable import list from outside the EU. Edited chapter 6 - centres in Cardiff and Aberystywth have closed. There’s only one service centre now, in Merthyr Tydfil. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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